Iranian architecture displays a class and elegance that cannot be matched with any other style of architecture and design. It is quite distinct from that of Muslim countries. The major features of Iranian architecture are: structural ingenuity basically in vault and dome construction; a skill of decoration with freedom and intricacy incomparable to any other form of architecture.

The pre-Islamic buildings include the remarkable Elamite ziggurat at Chogha Zanbil. Baked brick was used for outer surfaces by the 12th century BC. Most of the greatest buildings were built with a religious purpose, and even in secular buildings religious influences are entirely absent. Palaces were present, and their shapes, sizes and colors varied according to the ruling dynasty.

The first great development of ancient Persian architecture took place under the Achaemenid dynasty during the Persian Empire, from about 550 to 330 BC. There are numerous remains of Achaemenian period, including two palaces, a sacred precinct, a citadel, a tower, and the tomb of Cyrus.

Royal architecture under the Achaemenid also included tombs cut in solid rock, of which the best-known examples are those at Naqshah Rostam near Persepolis. Little is known of the popular building practices of the period, but archaeologists believe that the ordinary dwelling was made of mud brick. After the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great, Greek influence, in its late, Hellenistic phase, was predominant in the arts of Persia. Examples include fragments of bronze sculpture found at Shami, and the Parthian sculptural reliefs at Behistun.

During the Islamic period “mosques” became the major buildings in Iranian architecture. Outstanding examples of early Islamic Iranian architecture include the Mosque of Baghdad built in 764, the Great Mosque at Samarra erected in 847, and the early 10th-century mosque at Nayin.

After the 17th century, Iranian artists copied European paintings and engravings, and the native traditions declined. But Iranian architecture still managed to leave a huge impact on the world.

The term Victorian architecture refers to a number of styles of architecture, which was primarily used during the Victorian period. These architectural styles were quite popular during the period of mid 1837 to the beginning of 1901. This period marked the rule of Queen Victoria and was named after her.

The Victorian era of architecture, was marked by a number of styles, such as Renaissance Revival, Neo-Grec, British Arts and Crafts movement, Italianate, Gothic Revival, Jacobethan, Neoclassicism, Industrial architecture, Painted ladies, Queen Anne, Stick-Eastlake, Romanesque Revival, as well as Second Empire.

There have also been Folk as well as Shingle Style Victorian Houses. As it is, the names of the architectural styles, apart from their adaptations had varied between the countries. Several homes merged the elements of various styles and therefore are not easily discernible as one particular style. In the United States, highly decorated houses have often been addressed to as gingerbread houses.

Some of the most prominent Victorian era cities include Richmond, London, Toronto, Boston, St. Louis, Louisville, Saint Paul, Galena, Nelson, Sydney, Melbourne, IL, Galveston, Chicago, Detroit, San Francisco, Glasgow, Kolkata, Mumbai, Pittsburgh, Manchester, Philadelphia, Grand Rapids, as well as New Orleans.

In the United States, the South End of the city of Boston has been recognized as the oldest, as well as the largest Victorian neighborhood of the country. Old Louisville in Kentucky is also believed to be one of the largest Victorian neighborhood of America.

Apart from that, Richmond, Virginia is also home to a number of large Victorian neighborhoods, with the Fan and Church Hill, being the most prominent. Church Hill enjoys the distinction of being a place where Patrick Henry had given his famous speech at the historic Saint John’s church.

The Distillery District of Toronto is home to the largest as well as the best preserved collection of industrial architecture of the Victorian-era in North America. Apart from that, Cabbage town has been the largest as well as the most continuous Victorian style residential area of North America. The other Victorian neighborhoods of Toronto include Annex, Corktown, Park dale, as well as Rosedale.

The Old West End neighborhood in Toledo, Ohio has been recognized as the one having the biggest collection of the late Victorian as well as Edwardian architectural homes of the United States. Carroll Avenue of Los Angeles contains the city’s highest concentration of homes of Victorian style.

There is something really fascinating about the Victorian era and almost everything related to this period, continues to fascinate us to this date, especially Victorian architecture.

Cisco Certified Architecture is the highest level of qualifications possible within the Cisco Requirements program. It is the epitome for individuals wanting to show their official approval of Cisco technologies and facilities structure.

This famous qualification recognizes the structural expertise of program Architectures who can support the increasingly complex networks of worldwide organizations and effectively turn organization methods into major technical methods. A Cisco Certified Architecture increases the organization requirements and objectives necessary to produce a strategy for a, large-scale, complex, worldwide program. They can turn organization factors and objectives into functional requirements for a program design. In addition, Cisco Certified Architectures can clearly communicate and recommend suggested Cisco program architectures.
Requirements

There are no official training applications available for the Cisco Qualified Architecture qualifications. However, candidates wanting to accomplish their Cisco Qualified Architecture qualifications must fulfill before an in-person panel made of Cisco-appointed examination panel associates during which the candidate protects their suggested system remedy.

Exam 650-754
Exam 650-754 includes 60 concerns and the time permitted is 60 moments or 1 hour. This test 650-754 is available in only British terminology. Applicants for Exam 650-754 can sign-up for examination at any Pearson VUE middle.

The 650-754 Innovative IP Next-Generation Network (NGN) Structure System Professional (PANGNSE) examinations will determine a learner’s understanding of the Cisco IP NGN architecture and capability to map specialized alternatives to business needs. This examination is a need of the Innovative IP NGN Structure Expertise for Systems Technical engineers.
650-752 Exam Topics

The following subjects are typical recommendations for the articles likely to be involved on the examination. However, other relevant subjects may also appear on any particular distribution of the examination. To be able to better indicate the 650-752 material of the examination and for quality requirements, the recommendations below may modify at any time without observe. They include:

Describe how to create and existing Cisco IP NGN alternatives as a company situation to the customer
Describe the Cisco IP NGN architecture
Describe Cisco IP NGN conditions and advantages
Describe Cisco IP NGN alternatives and how to arrange them with client needs
Describe typical client objections
Describe the aggressive surroundings and how to place Cisco IP NGN solutions
Describe how to create and existing Cisco IP NGN alternatives as a company situation to the customer
Describe the company and specialized advantages of the Cisco IP NGN architecture
Describe the company influencers for Cisco IP NGN structure applications
Implement Cisco IP NGN structure scenarios
Jobs of the Cisco Qualified Architecture
Lead growth and advance of architecture
Analyze engineering and industry market trends
Establish with regards to principles for networks
Selection of engineering and products
Identification of company resource needs
Direct the growth of connections and understanding strategy for system architecture

Applicants seeking to use to become a Cisco Qualified Architecture must also keep an actual Cisco Qualified Design (CCDE) certification, confirming their expert level style and company level skills set.

Interior architecture can be seen as different from architecture in that the interior rooms, halls, doorways + stairs can be re designed once the initial design for the architecture of the building as a whole is in place. Interior architecture can be used to completely re design, for example a room such as a kitchen, bathroom in a family home which is quite common or a meeting room or office layout in a business environment or modify the existing design based on original architecture.

The interior architecture of a building can be changed for many reasons, either practical, where the interior of a building is going to be used for a new purpose or due to changing fashions or updated technologies. Examples of this are very common in many towns and cities where the exterior of a building is in a style of when it was built, say in the late 19th century but it’s interior has been completely re vamped incorporating modern design fashions and the latest technology.

The use of interior architecture means that for many buildings over a hundred years old the development of the look and design of their interior and exterior could often be the work of many different architects or teams of architects. This has meant for many of our towns and cities the architecture on view can be widely varied and reflect many different periods of time, design fashions and architecture styles. Some of which can be seen as timeless whilst others from certain eras can be seen as garish and bad taste 20 – 30 years down the line.

However no matter what a buildings exterior may look like with the help of interior architects, refurbishment and fit out specialists the interior look and feel of many buildings can be totally transformed with enough time and money bringing them up to date, that is until the latest style, fashion and technologies need integrating a few years down the line.

The main thing to differentiate architecture + interior architecture is that an architect is concerned with the concept of designing a new building the interior architect is concerned with the modification of existing buildings, some of which the design can be seen as timeless and look good for centuries whilst other will be an eye saw and look dated within 10 – 30 years.

This is quite a large and interesting topic, for further reading would advise looking at books + articles, online, in bookshops, news agents or in libraries on architecture, design + interior design.
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Spanish revival architecture is hugely popular in California, and increasingly across the nation. The mission revival style and colonial revival styles grew in popularity at the beginning of the 20th century, but people today still chose to emulate the Spanish style when building their homes and public establishments. Why do people continue to use this Spanish style? I argue that the Spanish colonial style represents the very beginnings of the United States on the west coast, and this time in the US history continues to spark peoples imaginations. The aesthetic elements are iconic, and people still commission architects to create the homes of their dreams in this style.

The Spanish Colonial Revival style was created in the United States in the 20th century, and it was sparked after the opening of the Panama Canal. The novel Ramona also had a great influence on the popularity of this architectural style. The early Spanish colonies of North and South America had their particular style of architecture brought from the homeland, and this style was them updated to accommodate the new century in the US. Between 1915 and 1931 this style was all the rage, and movie stars in Hollywood clamored to get their Hollywood hills homes built in this style. Mostly the single-level detached home saw this style. On a personal note, my own grandmother has one of these homes in California, and its pink!

The Spanish Colonial Revival style is very similar to the Spanish Mission Revival style, but with a few key differences. Its also similar to the pueblo styles of the west and southwest, and influenced as well by the arts and crafts movement that was the foundation of these architectural styles. The iconic use of smooth plaster, stucco walls, and chimney finishes, clay tile roofs, terra cotta and concrete ornaments is still a highly noticeable, recognizable style. Other elements include porches and balconies, and Roman arcades and fountains. Youll also see canvas awnings. The most important Spanish Revival architect in California was George Washington Smith who practiced during 1920s and 1930s. Perhaps his most famous house is the Steedman House in Montecito, CA, now a museum called the Casa del Herrero.

But there are other architects who took this Spanish style across the globe. Take for example a lovely Spanish Revival building in St. Louis, by the architect T.P. Barnett, son of George I. Barnett; another famous architect in St. Louis. The T.P. Barnett building is particularly interesting because it also has Art Deco influences, making it one of the most unique buildings in the Grand Center region of St. Louis. Certainly the next time youre in St. Louis, you need to visit this Spanish Revival building on Washington Avenue.

Title: Architecture meets Industrial Design

Text & Photography: Foster + Partners

Blurring the lines between architecture, interior design and industrial design, F+P once again prove that design is seamless and universal

Foster+Partners has proved its design prowess beyond the building industry and carries it forward to designing the interiors and furnishings for a commercial aircraft, drawing on its previous commissions for yachts and private jets.

Following the successful refurbishment of The Wing, Cathay Pacific’s flagship lounge at Hong Kong International Airport, the practice has carried the lounge’s sophisticated design into the first class cabin of the Boeing 777-300ER fleet refreshing the award-winning cabin.

The Wing, which opened earlier this year,is the second in a series of lounges by Foster + Partners for Cathay Pacific at HongKong International Airport. Every detail of the interiors,from the Champagne Bar to the bathroom fittings in the luxurious first class -cabanas’, has been custom-designed by the practice to create an exceptional experience for guests.

Besides the plush interiors, the lounges are furnished with a number of unique pieces designed by Foster + Partners, including a marble reception desk,food counter and a free-standing champagne bar with integrated trays – down to the detail of porcelain plates. Alongside the bespoke products and one-off furniture pieces, The Wing also features the Ilium cylindrical table light, developed with Nemo and the Foster 503 armchair by Walter Knoll.The highlight is the Cathay Solus Chair, the airline’s signature developed with Poltrona Frau that responds to the desire for privacy in the midst of a busy public space with its hourglass form and multi-utility constitution: the circular form incorporates a wide,comfortable seat, an integrated a power supply and a table, which can be used as an informal desk. The ribs of cushion at the back of the chair extend in places to form ridges, which can be used as armrests.

Creating a seamless experience for passengers, the cabin’s design shares the lounge’s palette of warm white leather,reflective dark grey surfaces and walnut finishes to create a calm, understated interior. Every element is considered and refined, including the stitch of the bespoke covers for Cathay Pacific’s celebrated first class seat, the handmade woollen carpet, the refurbished bathrooms and the new reading light, which has been custom-designed to cast fewer shadows when working or dining.

to view images click on globalhop.indiaartndesign.com

Enterprise Architecture or Enterprise Software Architecture is the organizing logic that is used for business processes and software development service. It reflects the integration and standardizing needs of any organization’s operating representation.

Enterprise architects implement several methods and tools to get an idea of structure of an organization. To accomplish this task they produce several documents and models. These models and documents are called -artifacts.’ Artifacts are used to illustrate logical organization of business strategies, metrics and capabilities of business, information resource and networking infrastructure within the organization. A complete set of such artifacts are enough to illustrate the -enterprise’ architectural description of any organization, including software development companies.

The framework of enterprise architecture is an assortment of tools and processing models and assistance applied by architects in production of organization based architectural descriptions.

The main motive of architectural description of an organization is to enhance the efficiency of the business. Hence, it includes an array of tasks. While describing the architecture of an enterprise, architects pay attention to innovative structuring of the enterprise, centralized or federal business processing, quality offering before deadline and a justified expense on information technology. Information availed by architectural description can be used in various ways but its main purpose is to bring an improvement in the business functioning. In the present scenario, it is widely used by numerous companies to improve their business architectures, its performance and productivity.

Currently, Enterprise Software Architecture has become the key component of information technology control in almost every organization. Such companies have used a basic process of enterprise architecture as an important part of their information technology management strategy. The team of enterprise architects stands for different functions such as several aspects of performance engineering, IT portfolio management, management of metadata as well as improvement on custom software development services.

J2ME or also know as Java ME is a platform that is specifically designed for application development to run on mobile phones, PDAs and other embedded systems. J2ME development features an adaptable user interface, which integrates with network protocols and extends support for mobile application development. The mobile applications that are developed on J2ME can be also migrated across various different mobile devices. J2ME application developers create a variety of different mobile applications based on the customized requirements of the clients. They are experience in creating diverse mobile solutions and hence most clients prefer to outsource their mobile business applications to India.

J2ME Architecture and configuration
J2ME comprises of configurations and profiles that allow a developer to customize it for the Java Runtime Environment (JRE). The configuration defines the JVM used and the profile adds domain-specific classes to define the application.

Configurations: The configuration uses a set of core classes and a specific JVM to define the basic run-time environment. The configurations are of two types where one is called CLDC for handheld devices and the second one is CDC for plug-in devices. CLDC is has been developed for 16-bit or 32-bit small computing devices that have limited memory. CDC requires a 32-bit architecture and has at least 2 MB of memory and implements a functional JVM.

Profiles: A profile comprises of classes that allow J2ME application developers to execute features that are typically available on a group of small computing devices. The profiles used with CLDC are mobile information device profile (MIDP) and PDA profile (PDAP). The profiles used with CDC include Foundation Profile, Game Profile, Personal Profile, Personal Basis Profile and RMI Profile.

J2ME Architecture
The J2ME architecture consists of five layers and they are as follows:

MIDP: This is the topmost layer and consists of Java APIs. J2ME application developers use these APIs to create network connections, storage, and user interface. It also provides access to CLDC libraries and MIDP libraries.
J2ME APIs: This is the profile that comprises of a minimum set of application programming interfaces required for the small computing devices.
Configurations: This is responsible to manage the interactions between the JVM and the profile.
JVM
Operating System: This is the bottom layer.

Education is just a area with actually changing impetus. With good invasion of web and on the web services in most walk of present day life, one will need personalized development that’s simple and more user-friendly. With ADF (software development platform) and SOA (service oriented architecture), a strong doorway have been made by a new era of agile programming. Pc software improvement or internet development needs one to be constantly updated with the most recent systems on the market to generally meet client’s dependence on a simple and receptive software.

Extremely high level licensed programs can quickly be present in famous organizations to supply also corporate Hadoop training, ADF training, SOA training, and intense Hadoop training. Practical implementations of those systems possess a good method for any entrepreneur in addition to for the info technology world. Let’s comprehend both facades individually.

From THIS notion

PC software builders think it is excessively versatile and easy to program elements that may be recycled and designed without worrying all about the implementation program language and system.

Platform autonomy: SOA seeks to supply a nimble software that’s free from any program language worry or host system.

Architectural freedom: Technologies like SOA and ADF enables a scalable and flexible system to create composite development easier and recyclable.

High utility: Such systems gather several resources together that work with client’s fulfillment and easiness. For instance, it enables managing to Emails, charge cards and charging from the simple system.

From company notion

Similar to the quick changes in internet sites, the fundamental business methods are also changed to be secure, significantly quick, and significant. Entrepreneurs require a simple program for numerous procedures. ADF and soa systems have made their lives simple to use application and easier with modern programs.

Reusable components: Each element is individually made to be recycled for quantity of programs. Data freedom: Enormous information from disparate platforms is saved within an structured manner to be refined according to necessity. Performance control: Due to various elements and structure independent data, monitoring the company efficiency becomes simple by climbing different variables like revenue, manufacturing, structure an such like. Agility: The fundamental structure becomes quite durable and nimble for any new function or service; only a element needs to be included instead of altering the entire application or software. Economical: Being system separate, it enables managing every function from the simple centre, ergo decreasing the price to engage in to man power and more equipment.

Meal cult is an important part of countrys culture. Food and drink are the main necessities for sustaining life, and Taiwan cuisine takes a special place among the great cuisines of the world. Taiwan has a broad variety of dishes because of great ethnic diversity. The diversity of cuisines contains 8 principle types: Hoklo (or Taiwanese), Hakka, vegetarian cuisine, northern style cuisine, Hunan, Jiangzhe, Hong Kong, and Sichuan. Seafood is used in all these cuisines as a culinary culture of Taiwan that is simple and light.

In Taiwan people prefer to drink tea or coffee with some sandwiches for breakfast. They like fruits and sweets which are laid in a big plate on the table. For example, when the time for lunch comes, people eat salty dishes such as steamed and chopped chicken, steamed streaky pork with dry mustard cabbage, or dried mustard greens. Besides, they like rice with boiled eggs or fried potatoes with meat or fish. In Taiwan people have hundreds of receipts of dishes with rice and fish. Traditionally, Chinese dinner is laid at the round table in the center of which there is a flat circle on a revolving stand. It is necessary to point out that meals are served on big plates and are put in required amount on small plates by a person. At first cold snack is served, then time comes for hot dishes and only after these dishes the so called principle dishes are served.

In Taiwan people like to eat dishes with rice, meat and fish. In the end of dinner a soup or a broth is served. There is no dessert fruits and sweets are on the table during all the dinner and they are very often used in the principle dish (Bates 2005). Consequently, Taiwan cuisine represents one face by which a country is famous for. Traditional breakfast, lunch, and dinner in Taiwan are similar to breakfast, lunch, and dinner in Europe; however, there are some details you should know about Taiwan cuisine.

Taiwanese architecture is composed of variety of styles. The old traditional architectural model of houses in Taiwan still exists here. However, traditional architectural features of Taiwanese style become unimportant when entertaining and commercial institutions, such as shops and theaters, are built. We should emphasize that modern Taiwanese architecture unites traditional Taiwanese and European architecture styles. There appear buildings in European style, such as buildings of foreign consulates, foreign concessions, banks, hotels and clubs in big cities.